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A Conceptual Model of Referee Efficacy

A Conceptual Model of Referee Efficacy

Félix Guillén and Deborah Feltz

May 1, 2011

officiating, referee, sport, volunteer

This paper presents a conceptual model of referee efficacy, defines the concept, proposes sources of referee specific efficacy information, and suggests consequences of having high or low referee efficacy. Referee efficacy is hypothesized to influence referee performance, referee stress, athlete rule violations, athlete satisfaction, and co-referee satisfaction.